A dermoid cyst is a congenital defect (present from birth) that occurs during embryonic development when the skin layers do not properly grow together. A dermoid cyst is lined with epithelium, which contains tissues and cells normally present in skin layers, including hair follicles, sebaceous (skin oil) and sweat glands. These glands and tissues secrete their normal substances which collect inside the cyst, causing it to grow and enlarge.
Thyroglossal Duct Cysts
A thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital (present from birth) defect. When the thyroid gland forms during embryonic development, it begins at the base of the tongue and moves down the neck through a canal called the thyroglossal duct. This duct normally disappears once the thyroid reaches its final position in the neck. Sometimes, portions of the duct remain leaving cavities or pockets called cysts. These cysts can fill with fluid or mucus and may enlarge if they become infected. Very enlarged cysts in the throat can cause difficulty swallowing or obstruct breathing passages.
Branchial Cleft Cysts
A branchial cleft abnormality is a congenital (present from birth) defect that occurs during early embryonic development when the structures and tissues that form the neck and throat do not properly grow together. The tissues form pockets and pathways that contain cells from other parts of the neck and throat. Branchial cleft cysts are lined with skin and lymph cells and contain fluid that is secreted by these cells. Branchial cleft fistulas also contain skin cells but drain mucus and fluids from other internal areas of the neck and throat.
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